Non-pharmacological interventions and coping mechanisms during dysmenorrhea among female undergraduates in a tertiary institution in Nigeria

Submitted: 15 May 2023
Accepted: 19 December 2023
Published: 17 January 2024
Abstract Views: 101
PDF: 60
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.


Dysmenorrhea can be a burden on individuals and families. Investigating dysmenorrhea has become important to further our understanding of this issue and to research the measures that have been effective in managing it in other populations. Hence, the study aimed to investigate non-pharmacological interventions and coping mechanisms for painful menstruation among female undergraduates. The survey was carried out among 358 female students, and data was obtained with a researcher-structured questionnaire from a sample size of 208 derived using multistage sampling. A descriptive method of analysis was used to analyze the responses. Results revealed a high incidence of dysmenorrhea since 175 (89.7%) respondents experienced dysmenorrhea. Data revealed that nonpharmacological measures and home remedies for self-care, such as exercise, heat therapy, and herbal remedies, were prevalent among respondents. However, some respondents consult friends, families, and doctors for help. In conclusion, pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions were common, and some young women opted to normalize pain and were not utilizing the most effective alternatives for managing menstrual pain.

Armour M, Parry K, Manohar N, et al. The prevalence and academic impact of dysmenorrhea in 21,573 young women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Womens Health 2019;28:1161-71. DOI:

Wong CL, Farquhar C, Roberts H, Proctor M. Oral contraceptive pill for primary dysmenorrhea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;2009:CD002120. DOI:

Whitaker LHR, Reid J, Choa A, et al. An exploratory study into objective and reported characteristics of neuropathic pain in women with chronic pelvic pain. PLoS One 2016;11:e0151950. DOI:

Unsal A, Ayranci U, Tozun M, et al. Prevalence of dysmenorrhea and its effect on quality of life among a group of female university students. Ups J Med Sci 2010;115:138-45. DOI:

Al-Matouq S, Al-Mutairi H, Al-Mutairi O, et al. Dysmenorrhea among high-school students and its associated factors in Kuwait. BMC Pediatr 2019:19:80. DOI:

Wong CL. Health-related quality of life among Chinese adolescent girls with Dysmenorrhoea. Reprod Health 2018;15:80. DOI:

De Sanctis V, Soliman A, Bernasconi S, et al. Primary dysmenorrhea in adolescents: prevalence, impact and recent knowledge. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 2015;13:512-20.

Nahid K, Fariborz M, Ataolah G, Solokian S. The effect of an Iranian herbal drug on primary dysmenorrhea: a clinical controlled trial. J Midwifery Womens Health 2009;54:401-4. DOI:

Karampour E, Khoshnam E, Khoshnam MS, et al. The effect of massage training on primary dysmenorrhea. Adv Environ Biol 2012;6:3040-2.

Abdul-Razzak KK, Ayoub NM, Abu-Taleb AA, Obeidat BA. Influence of dietary intake of dairy products on dysmenorrhea. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2010;36:377-83. DOI:

Afreen F, Mamatha KR, Banapura A, Kavitha R. Self-medication practice in primary dysmenorrhea among medical and paramedical students - a cross-sectional questionnaire study. Nat J Physiol Pharma Pharmacol 2017;7:458-63. DOI:

Dehnavi ZM, Jafarnejad F, Kamali Z. The effect of aerobic exercise on primary dysmenorrhea: a clinical trial study. J Educ Health Promot 2018;7:3. DOI:

Heidarianpour A, Zamiri Dalir F, Shouride Yazdi M. The effects of eight week aerobic exercise on menstrual cycle disorders and hormones levels of FSH and LH. J Sabzevar University Med Sci 2016;23:336-343. [Article in Arabic].

Bello FA, Akinyotu OO, Odubamowo KH. Dysmenorrhea among female students at a teaching hospital in south western Nigeria. Trop J Obstet Gynecol 2017;34:129-33. DOI:

Marjoribanks J, Ayeleke RO, Farquhar C, Proctor M. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015;2015:CD001751. DOI:

Ameade EPK, Amalba A, Mohammed BS. Prevalence of dysmenorrhea among university students in northern Ghana; its impact and management strategies. BMC Womens Health 2018;18:39. DOI:

Parra-Fernández ML, Onieva-Zafra MD, Abreu-Sánchez A, et al. Management of primary dysmenorrhea among university students in the south of Spain and family influence. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020;17:5570. DOI:

Parazzini F, Di Martino M, Pellegrino P. Magnesium in the gynecological practice: a literature review. Magnes Res 2017;30:1-7. DOI:

Kural M, Noor NN, Pandit D, et al. Menstrual characteristics and prevalence of dysmenorrhea in college going girls. J Family Med Prim Care 2015;4:426-31. DOI:

Osuala, E., Udi, O. A., Samchisadede, G., & Mandah, F. (2024). Non-pharmacological interventions and coping mechanisms during dysmenorrhea among female undergraduates in a tertiary institution in Nigeria. Urogynaecologia, 36(1).


Download data is not yet available.